English-language Names within the Birds Korea Checklists

Dr Nial Moores, August tenth 2022

Japanese Murrelet or Crested Murrelet: what’s the extra applicable English-language title for this globally Susceptible species? Birds Korea prefers Crested Murrelet Synthliboramphus wumizusume, right here photographed in Jeju, Republic of Korea, February 2020 © Kim Yeiwon

The Republic of Korea (ROK) has no nationwide rarities committee, and no clear course of to evaluate main adjustments in standing. Birds Korea has due to this fact maintained open-access chicken checklists on-line in Korean and English since 2007, with main revisions each few years. The first objective of all of our checklists (and all of our work) is enhancing conservation alternatives for birds and their habitats. Primarily based on the data obtainable to us, with every guidelines revision we offer an up to date indication of abundance, and up to date assessments of nationwide and international conservation standing along with incorporating newly-recorded species and taxonomic adjustments that for probably the most half intently comply with the IOC World Fowl Guidelines (Gill et al. 2022). We additionally do what we will to assist popularize birding and to encourage engagement within the work (by supporting packages like Merlin and eBird, by inviting feedback, and thru workshops, subject occasions and media).

Beneath is an prolonged word on only one part a part of our revision of the Birds Korea Guidelines in 2022: our use of most popular English-language names for 18 chicken taxa recorded within the ROK that differ from these beneficial by Gill et al. (2022) (all of that are clearly indicated within the guidelines itself). This is only one of a collection of on-line articles we intend to publish as a part of a radical revision of the 2018 Guidelines, to assist clarify our selections. Please tell us what you assume. Thanks.

Please word: The 2022 Birds Korea Guidelines (English language model: Moores & Ha 2022; Korean language model Ha & Moores 2022) needs to be obtainable to our members and weblog guests inside just a few weeks.

Background to Birds Korea Most well-liked Names

All however 18 of the 607 English-language chicken names used within the Birds Korea Guidelines (2022) will comply with Gill et al. (2022).  These 18 are Birds Korea’s “most popular names”.  We really feel it useful to supply an in depth rationalization under of our reasoning for all 18, to encourage wider use of the guidelines and to answer potential criticism (as adopted our use of Gray Thrush for Turdus cardis as a substitute of Japanese Thrush in a weblog publish in April 2022).

What’s in a reputation? Japanese Thrush or Gray Thrush Turdus cardis, Busan, ROK, April 2022 © Nial Moores. Though there are thrush species that are endemic to Japan, this species breeds in China in addition to in Japan and was often called Japanese Gray Thrush or Gray Thrush for many years.

Following suggestions on our rationale, we are going to revise the Birds Korea Guidelines as wanted and in addition submit a last checklist of those preferences to the IOC World Fowl Listing staff – within the hope that some / many of those preferences could be adopted by them too.

Nothing is everlasting however change itself

First, it’s important to place our selections in a fuller context. As most birders know effectively already, few English-language chicken names are completely mounted: many species have been identified by multiple title, and the names used for them now have often been adopted in response to new or higher info. The identical can be true, although to a lesser diploma, for Korean-language names.  Importantly, this course of continues even now, usually at a fast tempo, as understanding of every taxon deepens and as nationwide and international checklists work towards closing a number of the gaps between them.  

By the use of prolonged instance:  what was identified in Korean checklists as North Chinese language Sand Lark by Austin (1948) and Nam (1950), was listed by Gore & Received (1971) as “Sand (or Lesser Brief-toed) Lark”; after which by Received (1996) as Lesser Brief-toed Lark; earlier than Park (2002) listed the identical species as Asian Brief-toed Lark.

Till not too long ago listed as Asian Brief-toed Lark; now listed as (presumed) Turkestan Brief-toed Lark Alaudala heinei, Socheong Island, October 27, 2009 © Nial Moores

Not all these adjustments within the English-language title of this irregularly-occurring lark have been pushed by taxonomic adjustments, however some have been. The scientific title has additionally modified over the past 75 years, from Calandrella rufescens (as utilized by Austin in 1948, Nam in 1950 and Received in 1996) to Calandrella cheleensis as utilized by Park (2002) to Alaudala cheleensis as utilized by Park (2022).  Now, following thorough taxonomic evaluate by Alstrom et al. (2021), the proposed cut up of this identical species into a number of part elements has been accepted by Gill et al. (2022).  Primarily based on the distribution maps in Alstrom et al. (2021) and on current feedback offered to us by Prof. Alstrom on photos of birds taken within the ROK, the taxon recorded in Korea has each a brand new English-language and scientific title: Turkestan Brief-toed Lark Alaudala heinei. There may be apparently no confirmed file but within the ROK of the “narrower” and fewer migratory species now often called Asian Brief-toed Lark Alaudala cheleensis.

Turkestan Brief-toed Lark is due to this fact added to Class 1 within the 2022 Guidelines, whereas Asian Brief-toed Lark is relegated to a Evaluate Folder (not less than till Prof. Alstrom could make the time to evaluate photos and sound recordings we despatched him, in order that he can affirm or refute suspicions that each species seemingly happen right here!).

Identify adjustments similar to these are genuinely complicated and require time to analysis and incorporate into guidelines revisions. Sadly, which means even one of the best subject guides can quickly turn out to be out-of-date, doubtlessly inflicting confusion and misunderstanding for years to come back. To return to the instance above, birders utilizing the most recent main field-guide by Dr Park Jong-Gil (printed in April 2022) will discover photos of birds photographed in Korea with the title 북방쇠종다리 that are labelled in English as each Asian Brief-toed Lark A. cheleensis and Lesser Brief-toed Lark A. rufescens heinei. They may discover no point out in any respect of Turkestan Brief-toed Lark.  

Due to this ever-evolving background, nationwide checklists and field-guides want fixed revision, with revisions in taxonomy and nomenclature primarily based firmly on an accessible and commonly up to date international guidelines if they’re to have any significant level of reference: an anchor in a really unsettled sea. 

To Birds Korea as an organisation, and to an growing variety of folks and organisations world wide, the IOC World Fowl Listing on worldbirdnames.org offers the worldwide gold normal.  Primarily based on the suggestions of Gill, Donsker and Rasmussen and their professional advisors reporting by means of regional committees, the ensuing guidelines is a large and good collaborative work, which covers the entire world’s birds, invitations enter (to which the Guidelines managers are genuinely responsive and open), and goals to construct consensus between checklists, together with on English-language names. This have to be removed from simple work.  English spelling and preferences fluctuate by continent, and plenty of birders are eager to guard their private lists and might turn out to be very connected to the species’ names they use.  Deciding too when to simply accept a taxon as a full species after which agreeing on one of the best English-language title for it should even be time-consuming and infrequently a thankless activity – particularly when you need to keep the identical excessive normal for nearly 11,000 species world wide, together with in nations the place English is a minor language (if spoken in any respect). Therefore the IOC World Fowl Listing’s sturdy dependence on scientific publications written in a number of the extra accessible languages of the world to assist their selections.

Birds Korea checklists have lengthy adopted Gill et al. (2022) and their earlier editions as a result of we wholeheartedly agree with their goals and processes, in addition to their 10 rules on English-language names, together with Precept One. Precept One requires using just one beneficial title for every species, as a substitute of the infinite provision of alternate options (for an instance of a number one ornithological work from this area predating this course of please confer with the Birds of Japan by Dr Mark Brazil printed in 1991: it lists dozens of other names, together with British English and American English most popular alternate options, and plenty of names like Brief-tailed or Steller’s Albatross – a selection between one that’s descriptive and the opposite primarily based on the title of an ornithologist). 

In selecting the “finest” English-language title to make use of in Birds Korea checklists it will merely be best for us to comply with each one of many suggestions in Gill et al. (2022).  Sadly, nevertheless, we contemplate that a number of the names are deceptive and unhelpful to chicken conservation on this area, together with some that are additionally an pointless reminder of Japanese army occupation final century, inflicting offence to some, and doubtlessly slicing brief their curiosity in birds.

As compilers of one of many few English-language checklists in Far East Asia, we really feel some accountability, nevertheless modest, to assist counsel higher choices to the IOC World Fowl Listing – similar to each different consumer – and to see in the event that they agree with us.

Our Eighteen Most well-liked English-language Names…

Of the 18 taxa we checklist as species which have English-language names which don’t comply with Gill et al. (2022), 16 have their centre of distribution in Far East Asia / Northeast Asia: our area of main concern. The remaining two are not too long ago cut up with their East Asian subspecies now elevated to full species rank.  For all however two or three of the 18, the names we use have already been used extensively within the area: i.e., they’re “Established Names” (Precept 4).  For every of the 18, the names we use purpose to focus on their precise distribution and / or spotlight options helpful of their identification; or purpose to attract consideration to their closeness to species which they’ve been cut up from.

  • 4 of the 18 spotlight the shut relationship between recently-split species; with a further one included to focus on a historic cut up.
  • 5 of the 18 are included due to taxonomic concerns (printed in peer-reviewed literature or in gray literature) and never (but) formally assessed by Gill et al. (2022).
  • Eight of the 18 are names by which the prefix “Japanese” is changed with what we contemplate to be a extra helpful descriptor.
See also  All set to Manage the Danger of Bird Influenza at our Wild Animals Centers

“Japanese” as a prefix

As the biggest and hardest to grasp class for folks exterior of this area, the over-use of “Japanese” as a prefix for chicken species which aren’t endemic to Japan requires fuller rationalization. In our opinion, along with regional sensitivities, using the prefix is usually somewhat deceptive and might contribute to biased perceptions on distribution and the necessity for conservation motion.  

For instance, the Cornell Lab of Ornithology’s on-line Birds of the World states of Japanese Wagtail Motacilla grandis that,“Standing in Korea unsure; pair bred in 1966, and thought by some to be a uncommon resident; probably native and unusual breeder in excessive S and on E coast, however extra examine wanted” (Tyler 2020). That is despite the fact that the species is a domestically widespread resident within the ROK, as proven clearly in eBird data. 

Distribution of Japanese Wagtail Motacilla grandis: screenshot of eBird entries for the ROK as of August 2022 © Cornell lab of Ornithology / eBird. The very small hole in data in late June / early July coincides with a mixture of sizzling, moist climate and a resultant sharp dip in most birding exercise.

Within the case of Japanese Wooden Pigeon Columba janthina (a species we favor to checklist as Black Wooden Pigeon) Baptista et al. (2020) give the distribution of the nominate subspecies in Birds of the World as “Small islands sw of South Korea to Ryukyu Islands”. Nonetheless, they don’t embrace any info in any respect on the species from Korea – solely from Japan. In the same vein, the species’ description on eBird as of August 2022 states, “Usually unusual endemic of offshore Japanese and to a lesser extent Chinese language and Korean islands.”

To one of the best of our data, the globally Close to Threatened Black Wooden Pigeon is discovered on not less than 15 (Birds Korea 2010) and doubtless dozens of islands in Korea from Gageo within the southwest north to Eocheong (not less than irregularly), south to islands off Jeju, all alongside the south coast (with a number of data additionally on the mainland in Busan), in addition to on Ulleung Island within the East Sea (often called the Sea of Japan in Japan). Though extra analysis is required, my very own experiences with the species and the literature that I’ve seen counsel that birds on Gageo within the southern Yellow Sea (the place there have been between 25 and 30 territories again in 2009) are resident or native migrants; they’re shy; they usually usually present an apparent pink-purple gloss on the crown. Birds on Ulleung (in forest, the place I estimated between 200 and 500 people have been current in late 2014) and the adjoining Dokdo (the place small numbers have been watched feeding on low windswept bushes on cliff-sides) seem like rather more strongly migratory; are somewhat much less shy; and appear to point out extra apparent inexperienced on the crown.

Clearly, on the very least, Korea kinds an vital and under-researched a part of the vary of this species, which could turn out to be much more vital sooner or later with local weather warming facilitating a considerable northward unfold of broad-leaved evergreen forest alongside the island-studded west coast (Birds Korea 2010; Moores 2012).

Black Wooden Pigeon Columba janthina, June 2009, Gageo Island © Nial Moores. Word the purplish-pink head gloss, rather more apparent at some angles than others
Black Wooden Pigeon , November 2014, Ulleung Island, East Sea © Nial Moores. At the very least some Black Wooden Pigeon are assumed emigrate between breeding habitat on Ulleung to southwestern Japan for winter. Birds on Ulleung seem to point out extra apparent inexperienced up on to the crown than birds on Gageo, and plenty of are clearly much less shy and extra tolerant of disturbance.

If only some species like these had the prefix “Japanese” then this may maybe be solely a minor difficulty. Nonetheless, at the moment, no fewer than 19 species are listed on the net Birds of the World with English-language names beginning with the prefix “Japanese”, and nearly all of those are present in Korea. The IOC World Fowl Listing presumably has the same quantity.

Why so many? 

Proof suggests clearly to us that use of “Japanese” as a prefix for these 19 species is:

  1. Not due to the unquestionably excessive variety of species endemic to Japan.  Whereas all 19 species are present in Japan, solely 4 of them are literally endemic as breeding species, and not less than one (Japanese Waxwing Bombycilla japonica) doesn’t even breed there in any respect.  Genuinely Japan-endemic chicken species are as a substitute extra prone to have the title of an island chain than “Japanese” as a prefix (Birds of the World lists six extant or extinct species with the prefix “Ryukyu”, and 5 with the prefix “Bonin” for instance). 
  2. Not due to the scale of Japan relative to neighboring nations. Twenty-eight species in complete are at the moment listed with the prefix “Chinese language” on the net Birds of the World (a lot of that are successfully endemic to China) however there are not any species listed with “Korean” or “Russian” as a prefix in any respect. After all, the realm of territory of each China and Russia is many instances that of Japan. Dimension does matter, however not that a lot!
  3. Not due to the nationality of the one that collected or described the kind specimen.  Japan does have an extended and distinguished historical past of ornithological experience and the names of ornithologists are contained in a considerable proportion of the English-language names of species first described in Japan, China and Korea.  The web Birds of the World lists seven Pallas’s and 6 Swinhoe’s as prefixes for instance. Nonetheless, following the alternative of the English-language title Kuroda’s Sheldrake as utilized by Austin (1948) by the present English-language title Crested Shelduck Tadorna cristata, plainly solely Matsudaira’s Storm Petrel and Ijima’s Leaf Warbler nonetheless honour Japanese contributions to ornithology in English-language names of birds present in Far East Asia.

Essentially the most believable rationalization for the over-use of “Japanese” as a prefix is as a substitute the results of two principal elements: army occupation by Japan of the Korean Peninsula and of elements of China for a number of many years within the first half of the Twentieth Century, which was then adopted by a paucity of English-language ornithological literature on birds produced inside North-east Asia for a lot of the second half of the identical century. 

Through the decades-long occupation, Japanese ornithologists collected and named new taxa all through the occupied territories of what was often called the Japanese Empire, along with inside modern-day Japan itself.  The geographical attain of their analysis was then inadvertently mounted within the English-language chicken names utilized by Austin (1948), who wrote the primary main ornithological evaluate of Korean birds in English within the temporary interval between the tip of Japanese occupation (on the finish of World Battle Two) and the Korean Battle which broke out in 1950.  Out of the 355 taxa in complete which Austin was in a position to observe down in literature and in collections, he listed a minimum of 29 with the prefix “Japanese”.

Importantly, as famous by Duckworth & Moores (2008), “As a result of Austin’s was the one English-language summation of Korean birds as much as 1971, it has exerted the cultural equal of a genetic founder impact on fascinated by Korean chicken standing”.  Austin’s work, each in Korea after which shortly after in Japan (e.g., Austin & Kuroda 1953) has evidently exerted a lot affect on English-language chicken names all through North-East Asia too, most definitely as a result of since his time most ornithological literature in Northeast Asia was and (nonetheless is) being written within the nationwide languages of Korean, Russian, Chinese language and Japanese – and never in English.

As famous by Brazil (1991), “whereas innumerable fascinating books have been showing in Japanese in the course of the late Seventies and Nineteen Eighties, none was in English”. The identical maybe stays true for Far Jap Russia even as we speak, although the Far Jap Journal of Ornithology not less than printed some English-language annotation of their 2010 Guidelines protecting the Primorsky Krai (Gluschenko et al. 2010).

To repeat, the excessive variety of chicken names with “Japanese” as a prefix seems largely to be a hangover from many years of harsh occupation (related to Precept 6: Offensive Names) adopted by many years with little ornithological literature written in-region in English.

We due to this fact see it as a optimistic that, as Austin’s affect fades ever dimmer and extra literature is produced throughout the area, there was a gradual motion to cut back the prevalence of “Japanese” as a prefix in English-language names for non-Japan endemic species. Examples embrace Purple-crowned Crane Grus japonensis (changing the longstanding names of Japanese Crane and Manchurian Crane) and Warbling White-eye Zosterops japonicus (an out-of-the-blue title for a chicken identified for many years as Japanese White-eye). That is an ongoing course of that we hope our suggestions may contribute to.

Previously often called Japanese White-eye, this species, photographed right here in Busan in December (© Nial Moores) was immediately re-named as Warbling White-eye Zosterops japonicus in 2018 – a reputation which was in all probability new to nearly each birder and ornithologist on the planet!

Out of respect for Precept 4 (Established Names), within the 2022 Guidelines we solely substitute the prefix “Japanese” for eight species as a result of we have no idea of widely-used alternate options for the remaining non-endemics. The eight we chosen do have widely-used various names and inclusion of “Japanese” of their names appears particularly complicated as a result of, e.g., the species has a a lot wider vary than Japan and / or a special species from the identical household is in reality endemic to Japan when the species with the preface “Japanese” isn’t.  

Primarily based on the entire above, our suggestions at the moment are:

  1. Northern Hawk-cuckoo for Hierococcyx hyperythrus somewhat than Rufous Hawk-cuckoo. Previously identified extra extensively as Hodgson’s Hawk Cuckoo (e.g., Chalmers 1986; Brazil 1991) earlier than being cut up. A number of related Hawk-cuckoos exist with reddish (“rufous”) underparts (e.g., Widespread Hawk-cuckoo and Philippine’s Hawk-cuckoo); and that is probably the most northerly distributed of all of the Hawk-cuckoo species. The title was utilized by Received (1996), so presumably was in widespread utilization at the moment, in addition to by Brazil (2009) and extra not too long ago by Spherical & Dymond (2022).
  2. Black Wooden Pigeon for Columba janthina somewhat than Japanese Wooden Pigeon.  Brazil (2009) lists this globally Close to Threatened species as Black Woodpigeon; Korea holds a considerable proportion of the worldwide inhabitants of this species; the species seems black within the subject; and the prefix “Japanese” is lower than ideally suited for this taxon as there are two extinct darkish Wooden Pigeons (Bonin Wooden Pigeon and Ryukyu Wooden Pigeon) which, in contrast to Black Wooden Pigeon, have been truly endemic to Japan.
  3. Jap Water Rail for Rallus indicus as a substitute of Brown-cheeked Rail. The taxon indicus was often called Jap Water Rail by early authors, together with Austin (1948) and the identical title was additionally utilized by Brazil (2009). The title appears to be in pretty extensive utilization amongst birdwatchers in East Asia. The extra patterned “brown cheeks” of Jap when put next with Western Water Rail is a somewhat poor field-mark, and considerably age dependent (rather more apparent are the undertail coverts).
  4. Western Water Rail for Rallus aquaticus as a substitute of Water Rail. Because of the similarity of the 2 species and their completely different centres of distribution, Western Water Rail is an environment friendly and logical prefix for aquaticus, as soon as Jap Water Rail is accepted for indicus.
  5. Far Jap Oystercatcher (or higher, if the longer size and new coined names are acceptable, Far East Asian Oystercatcher) for Haematopus osculans as a substitute of Eurasian Oystercatcher for Haematopus ostralegus osculans.  Listed as a separate species by Livezey (2010) in Appendix as “Haematopus osculans Swinhoe, 1871. – Korean Oystercatcher”. Senfeld et al. (2020) present extra genetic assist for this cut up, concluding that amongst “a number of unresolved contentious taxa of oystercatchers is the ‘Far Jap’ Oystercatcher H. ostralegus osculans. Whereas at the moment not recognised as a species, a number of research have identified that its standing needs to be reevaluated. A conservation evaluation of H. ostralegus osculans notes that its longer invoice, distinct juvenile and non-breeding plumage, and geographic isolation counsel that it needs to be thought of an impartial evolutionary unit (Melville et al. 2014). Beforehand, a morphological examine of shorebirds classed osculans as a separate species (Livezey 2010) which might be in line with our mitochondrial molecular phylogeny.”.  As osculans has a large distribution in Far East Asia, and because the English title rules name for brevity, the title Far Jap Oystercatcher was proposed by Melville et al. (2014).
  6. Tibetan Sand Plover for Charadrius atrifrons as a substitute of Lesser Sand Plover for Charadrius mongolus atrifrons group. Taxonomic and nomenclature adjustments comply with Wei et al. (2022).
  7. Siberian Sand Plover for Charadrius mongolus as a substitute of Lesser Sand Plover for Charadrius mongolus mongolus group Taxonomic and nomenclature adjustments comply with Wei et al. (2022).
  8. Mongolian Gull for Larus mongolicus as a substitute of Vega Gull for Larus mongolicus vegae.  Variations in plumage, moult, vocalisations, behaviour and habitat preferences have been described by various authors, together with at size on the Birds Korea web sites. Brazil (2009) was among the many first English-language subject guides to incorporate this as a full species, Mongolian Gull. This English-language nomenclature and taxonomy is adopted by a number of regional authors, together with Park (2022).
  9. Crested Murrelet for Synthliboramphus wumizusume as a substitute of Japanese Murrelet. This globally Susceptible species breeds in substantial numbers (in all probability a number of hundred pairs) at a handful of websites within the ROK and has been identified to be current in Korean waters since 1835, when Temminck gave the kind locality as Korea (as acknowledged by Austin 1948), primarily based on the kind specimen which was in all probability collected within the Korean Strait.  This presumably led Nam (1950) to checklist this species as “Korean Auk”.  Despite this historical past, “Japanese” was as a substitute used as a prefix by Austin (1948), and many years later Nettleship and Kirwan (2020) within the on-line Birds of the World omit the significance of Korea for the species by stating erroneously that the species is “restricted to 5 small areas off SE Japan…Minute inhabitants of maybe <10 pairs reported in South Korea (on Daegugul I, Dong I and Jeju I)”.  There are a number of identification options used to separate this species from the somewhat related Historic Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus, together with a tough to see however distinctive black crest in breeding plumage, which supplies the species its Korean and Japanese title, which translate into English as “Crested Little Duck” and “Crested Sea Sparrow” respectively. Birds Korea has been utilizing the title Crested Murrelet since our first on-line guidelines in 2007; Brazil (2009) offers Crested Murrelet as an Various Identify for this species; scientific papers on the species printed in Korea have used Crested Murrelet because the English title (e.g., Park et al. 2013); and Park (2022) lists this species solely as Crested Murrelet.
  10. Temminck’s Cormorant for Phalacrocorax capillatus as a substitute of Japanese Cormorant. This species isn’t endemic to Japan; somewhat it occupies intensive stretches of shoreline within the Russian Far East (the place Temminck’s Cormorant was apparently used to distinguish Asian continental breeding birds from these nesting in Japan: Kondratyev et al. 2000) and alongside the Korean coast. Traditionally, the title Japanese Cormorant was as a substitute used for the Japanese-endemic breeding subspecies of Nice Cormorant P. carbo hanedae together with by Austin (1948), who additionally used Temminck’s for P. capillatus, as did Nam (1950). It’s maybe additionally worthwhile to contemplate that Atlantic-coastline breeding P. carbo carbo in western Europe is separated from Pacific-coastline breeding P. carbo hanedae by inland-nesting sinensis from japanese Europe all the best way east to inland websites in Korea. If Atlantic or Pacific-coastline breeding carbo and hanedae are at a while to be thought of distinctive on the species degree from continental sinensis, then the title Japanese Cormorant would solely turn out to be obtainable for hanedae (once more) if P. capillatus have been referred to as Temminck’s Cormorant.
  11. Pacific Reef Egret for Egretta sacra as a substitute of Pacific Reef Heron. This species was initially thought of to be conspecific with Chinese language Egret Egretta eulophotes, and the primary identification problem stays that species.  The species was previously extensively identified throughout the area of incidence as Reef Egret (e.g., Chalmers 1986) or Jap Reef Egret (Brazil 1991), earlier than turning into extra extensively often called Pacific Reef Egret (Brazil 2009).
  12. The momentary place-holder title “Northern Scops Owl” for Otus semitorques and doubtlessly different taxa, as a substitute of the recently-coined Japanese Scops Owl, presumably as a result of the unique kind location was in Japan (Temminck 1844). To one of the best of our data, though a number of the scops owls within the ROK are thought of genetically near O. semitorques in Japan, there seems to have been inadequate analysis on small owls to have the ability to decide what number of scops owl taxa there are within the ROK, on the Korean Peninsula and in East Asia as a complete.  At the very least, it seems that there could be substantial variation throughout this area in vocalisations attributed to what was often called Feathered Toed Scops Owl (Nam 1950) earlier than turning into Indian Scops Owl (Received 1996) then Collard Scops Owl (Ornithological Society of Korea 2009), earlier than being cut up to supply O. semitorques. Both manner, the coining of Japanese Scops Owl for O. semitorques appears particularly retrogressive and unhelpful for a number of causes. As at the moment mapped, O. semitorques has a a lot wider vary than solely Japan (being discovered additionally in China, Russia and on the Korean Peninsula); the species isn’t particularly widespread in Japan; Japan already has an endemic scops owl, the Ryukyu Scops Owl; and pryeri, at the moment thought of to be a subspecies of this newly-coined Japanese Scops Owl, can be endemic to Japan.
  13. Black Paradise Flycatcher for Terpsiphone atrocaudata as a substitute of Japanese Paradise Flycatcher. This globally near-threatened species breeds in substantial numbers within the southern provinces of the Korean Peninsula, and at smaller densities not less than north to Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces within the ROK (Birds Korea archive); and in addition as in western Japan, the Nansei Shoto of Japan, and Taiwan (Moeliker 2022).  Males are clearly darker above than males of the not too long ago cut up Amur Paradise Flycatcher T. incei, and might look nearly black above in subject situations. As well as, based on Prof. Phil Spherical (in lit. Could 2016), one of the crucial helpful subject characters to search for in female-type plumages is “the kind of uniform sooty blackish main coverts. Major coverts have contrasting shiny rufous edges in all non-white plumages of T. incei.”  Black as a prefix due to this fact has actual worth when contemplating identification points. Along with the misrepresentation of vary inherent within the Prefix “Japanese”, it must also be famous that there’s a “pretty sturdy risk” that subspecies T. atrocaudata illex of the Nansei Shoto “deserves species rank” (Moeliker 2020). This might end in presumably two Paradise Flycatchers with prefixes associated to presence in Japan.  Austin (1948) listed the species as Japanese Paradise Flycatcher, however Nam (1950) as a substitute listed it Korean Paradise Flycatcher. Japanese Paradise Flycatcher has extensive utilization, however Black Paradise Flycatcher is offered in its place title by Brazil (2009) and Gluschenko et al. (2010) use solely Black Paradise Flycatcher.
  14. Northern Nice Tit Parus main as a substitute of Nice Tit to enhance consistency with Jap Nice Tit for Parus minor.
  15. Jap Nice Tit for Parus minor as a substitute of Japanese Tit. The cut up of Nice Tit Parus main into a number of similar-looking and fairly similar-sounding species requires the coining of a number of distinctive names or the a lot less complicated use of relative centre of distribution: e.g., Northern Nice Tit P. main, Southern Nice Tit P. cinereus and Jap Nice Tit P. minor, as utilized by Brazil (2009). The prefix “Japanese”, whereas retrogressive, additionally appears peculiar for a species with such an enormous vary, maybe stretching “from japanese Tibet, south-western China, by means of south-eastern Russia, Korea to Japan” (Gosler et al. 2020, in Birds of the World, 2022). The title Jap Nice Tit additionally appears preferable to Japanese Tit, as (1) nigriloris Nice Tit, maybe a part of Southern Nice Tit or distinct in itself, additionally happens within the Nansei Shoto of Japan (Brazil 2009); and (2) Owston’s Tit Sittiparus owstoni (cut up from Various Tit Sittiparus varius) can be an endemic Japanese tit species.
  16. Far Jap Lark Alauda japonica, listed nonetheless as a full species on the premise of an extended historical past of sympatric breeding of various skylark taxa each in Korea (as earlier famous e.g., by Austin 1948 and extra authors) and regionally (far northern Japan and Far Jap Russia), mixed with apparently constant variations in dimension, breast sample, plumage saturation, tune flight descent, extent of tail held open throughout tune flights and a few variations in vocalisations between Far Jap Lark and pekinensis and lonnbergi, at the moment ascribed to Eurasian Skylark A. arvensis. This cut up, initially adopted by BirdLife Worldwide as “Japanese Lark”, has been retained by Birds Korea for the previous 15 years due to the dearth of proof to “undo” it. Of word, based on Magnus Robb (in lit. 2018), primarily based on preliminary evaluation of a restricted variety of recordings, there seemed to be extra distinction between Eurasian Skylark Alauda arvensis in western Europe and skylarks sensu lato in East Asia than between Far Jap Lark and Eurasian Skylark in Korea. It’s clear {that a} complete evaluate of Skylarks throughout Eurasia is required earlier than any additional selections will be taken. This evaluate must be performed with the same degree of experience and regional collaboration as demonstrated by Alstrom et al. (2021).
  17. Gray Thrush for Turdus cardis, as a substitute of Japanese Thrush. Though Gray Thrush appears a somewhat poor descriptor for this putting species, it’s preferable to Japanese. The species breeds in China in addition to in Japan, and there not less than two different genuinely endemic Japanese thrushes (Izu Islands Thrush Turdus celaenops and Amami Thrush Zoothera main) in addition to one extra species with the centre of its breeding distribution in Japan: Brown-headed Thrush Turdus chrysolaus.  The English-language title Gray Thrush has an extended historical past of use all through its vary. It was previously often called Japanese Gray Thrush by Austin (1948); subsequently, a number of authors then listed the species as Gray Thrush, together with Nam (1950) and Gore & Received (1971) within the ROK, Chalmers in Hong Kong (1986) and even Brazil (1991) in Japan.   
  18. Ochre-rumped Bunting for Emberiza yessoensis as a substitute of Japanese Reed Bunting.  Though the nominate subspecies is prone to be endemic as a breeding taxon to Japan, the majority of the species’ inhabitants (subspecies continentalis) breeds exterior of Japan in China and Russia, with a really small quantity additionally identified to breed within the DPRK and the ROK. As well as, in giant elements of the vary, this globally Close to Threatened species isn’t a reedbed-nesting specialist, as a substitute preferring moist sedge and moist grasslands, with migrants and wintering birds in a somewhat wider vary of habitats, together with reed-beds. Though usually thought of to be related seeking to Widespread and Pallas’s Reed Buntings, this species has a distinctively heat plumage, together with uniquely on the rump (Pallas’s Reed Bunting shares a number of the heat on the nape, however sometimes has a brown-grey rump band which fades a lot paler by means of the winter). Each Austin (1948) and Nam (1950) knew the species as Chinese language Reed Bunting, although famous that the Japanese title for the species translated to “Korean Little Reed Bunting”, with this title additionally utilized by Gore & Received (1971). Ochre-rumped Bunting was adopted as the popular title by the Oriental Fowl Membership within the 2000s; was steered in its place title by Brazil (2009) and by eBird (2022); and was used because the English title by Park (2014), although not by the identical creator in 2022, presumably to be in line with Gill et al. (2022).  
See also  Social Flycatcher proceeds at UTRGV Brownsville, 6/12/22
Ochre-rumped Bunting Emberiza yessoensis © Nial Moores. Above, in breeding habitat in Rason, DPRK (June 2018) and through migration, Baekryeong Island, ROK, October 2021

Even after the adoption of those preferences, ten species with the prefix “Japanese” nonetheless reman on the 2022 Birds Korea Guidelines, with 5 or 6 of those Korean-breeding species: Japanese Quail Coturnix japonica (NT), Japanese Evening Heron Gorsachius goisagi (VU), Japanese Sparrowhawk Accipiter gularis (LC), Japanese Pygmy Woodpecker Yungipicus kizuki (LC), Japanese Waxwing Bombycilla japonica (NT), Japanese Bush Warbler Horornis diphone (LC), Japanese Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus xanthodryas (LC), Japanese Accentor Prunella rubida (LC), Japanese Wagtail Motacilla grandis (LC) and Japanese Grosbeak Eophona personata (LC). This compares with zero species and just one subspecies with the prefix “Korean”.

We welcome listening to from members and the regional birding group!


Alstrom, P., Linschooten, J. P., Donald, P. F., Gombobataar Sundev, Mohammadi, Z., Ghorbani, F., Shafaeipourf, A., van den Berg, A., Robb, M., Aliabadian, M., Wei C., Lei F., Oxelman B., & Olsson, U. 2021. A number of species delimitation approaches utilized to the avian lark genus Alaudala. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 154 (2021) 106994.

Austin, O. L. 1948. The Birds of Korea. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard School, Vol. 101 No.1.

Austin, O. L. 1953. The birds of Japan: their standing and distribution. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 109 (4): 279-613.

Baptista, L. F., P. W. Path, H. M. Horblit, E. de Juana, C. J. Sharpe, and P. F. D. Boesman (2020). Japanese Wooden-Pigeon (Columba janthina), model 1.0. In Birds of the World (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D. A. Christie, and E. de Juana, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.jawpig1.01

Birds Korea. 2010. The Birds Korea Blueprint for the conservation of the avian biodiversity of the South Korean a part of the Yellow Sea. Revealed by Birds Korea.

See also  16th September 2022 

Brazil, M. 1991. The birds of Japan. Revealed by Helm.

Brazil, M. 2009. Subject Information to the Birds of East Asia (Helm Subject Guides).

Chalmers, M. 1986. Annotated Guidelines of the Birds of Hong Kong. Fourth version, printed by the Hong Kong Birdwatching Society.

Duckworth, J. M. & Moores, N. 2008. A re-evaluation of the pre-1948 Korean breeding avifauna: correcting a ‘founder impact’ in perceptions. Forktail 24: 25-47.

Gill, F., Donsker, D. and Rasmussen, P. (Eds.). 2022. IOC World Fowl Listing. v12.1. Accessed June-July 2022 at: http://www.worldbirdnames.org

Gore, M. & Received P-O. 1971. The Birds of Korea. Revealed by the Royal Asiatic Society, Korea Department.

Kondratyev, A., Litvinenko, N., Shibaev, Y., Vyatkin, P. & Kondratyeva, L. 2000. The breeding seabirds

of the Russian Far East: pages 37-82 in Kondratyev, A., Litvinenko, N. & Kaiser, G. (eds). 2000. Seabirds of the Russian Far East. Particular Publication Canadian Wildlife Service.

Gosler, A., P. Clement, and D. A. Christie (2020). Japanese Tit (Parus minor), model 1.0. In Birds of the World (S. M. Billerman, B. Ok. Keeney, P. G. Rodewald, and T. S. Schulenberg, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.gretit4.01

Livezey, B. C 2010. The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 160, 567–618.

Melville, D., Gerisamov Y., Moores N., Yu Y-T. & Q. Bai. 2014. Conservation evaluation of Far Jap Oystercatcher Haematopus [ostralegus] osculans. (pp. 129-154). In Ens, B. & L. Underhill (Eds.). Conservation Standing of Oystercatchers across the World. Worldwide Wader Research 20, August 2014. Worldwide Wader Research Group. 192pp.)

Moeliker, Ok. (2020). Japanese Paradise-Flycatcher (Terpsiphone atrocaudata), model 1.0. In Birds of the World (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D. A. Christie, and E. de Juana, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.japfly1.01

Moores, N. 2012. The Distribution and Conservation of the Avian Biodiversity of Yellow Sea Habitats within the Republic of Korea. Unpublished doctoral thesis, College of Newcastle, Australia.

Moores, N., Kim, A. & Kim R. 2014. Standing of Birds 2014. Birds Korea report on Fowl Inhabitants Traits and Conservation Standing within the Republic of Korea. Revealed by Birds Korea. September 2014.

Nam T-Ok. 1950. A Hand-list of the Korean Birds. Revealed by the Seoul Nationwide College, Seoul.

Ornithological Society of Korea. 2009. Korean Fowl Guidelines.

Nettleship, D. N. and G. M. Kirwan (2020). Japanese Murrelet (Synthliboramphus wumizusume), model 1.0. In Birds of the World (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D. A. Christie, and E. de Juana, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.japmur1.01

Park C-U., Ogura T., Kwak M-H. & Chae H-Y. 2013. First Breeding Report of Crested Murrelet (Synthliboramphus wumizusume) on Baek-do Islands, Dadoheahaesang Nationwide Park, Korea. Report uploaded on DBpia.

Park J-G. 2014. Identification Information to Birds of Korea. In collection Checklists of Organisms in Korea 12. Revealed by Nature and Ecology, Seoul. [In Korean]

Park J-G. 2022. Identification Information to Birds of Korea. Subject Information Nature and Ecology. In collection Guidelines of Organisms in Korea 12. Revised second version,

Park J-Y. 2002. Present Standing and Distribution of Birds in Korea. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Kyung Hee College, Republic of Korea.

Spherical, P. & Dymond, N. 2022.  Data of Northern Hawk-cuckoo Hierococcyx hyperythrus in Thailand and notes on their identification. BirdingAsia 37: 69-73.

Senfeld, T., Shannon, T. J., Grouw, H., Paijmans, D. M., Tavares, E. S., Baker, A. J., Lees, A. C & Collinson, J. M. 2020. Taxonomic standing of the extinct Canary Islands Oystercatcher Haematopus mead-ewaldoi. Ibis, 162 (3). pp. 1068-1074. ISSN 0019-1019

Tyler, S. 2020. Japanese Wagtail (Motacilla grandis), model 1.0. In Birds of the World (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D. A. Christie, and E. de Juana, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.japwag1.01

Wei C., Schweizer, M., Tomkovich, P.S., Arkhipov, V. Y, Romanov, M., Martinez, J., Lin X., Halimubieke N., Que P., Mu T., Huang Q., Zhang Z., Szekely, T. & Liu Y. 2022. Genome-wide knowledge reveal paraphyly within the sand plover complicated (Charadrius mongolus/leschenaultii). Ornithology. Quantity 139, Subject 2, April 2022.

Received P-O. 1996. Guidelines of the Birds of Korea. Bulletin of Korean Institute of Ornithology: Vol 5. No.1, 39-58.

Leave a Comment